India’s Lunar Ambition: Chandrayaan 3 Mission Aims for South Pole Landing

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India’s space agency, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), is set to embark on its ambitious lunar mission, Chandrayaan 3, with the aim of achieving a controlled landing on the Moon. This groundbreaking endeavor, scheduled for launch on July 14, seeks to make India only the fourth nation in history to successfully execute a lunar landing, following the United States, the former Soviet Union, and China. With a budget of 6 billion rupees (approximately US$73 million), Chandrayaan 3 represents India’s second attempt to safely land a spacecraft on the lunar surface.

Let’s understand ISRO’s Chandrayaan 3 mission and the background to it.

Exploring the Lunar South Pole

Objectives and Significance

Chandrayaan 3 is designed to deploy a lander and rover near the Moon’s south pole, marking a significant milestone in lunar exploration. The mission holds great scientific importance as it seeks to study the unique properties of this unexplored region. The lunar south pole is of particular interest due to its perpetually shadowed areas, which could potentially contain deposits of water ice—a crucial resource for future space missions. By gathering samples and analyzing the composition of the lunar surface, Chandrayaan-3 aims to contribute to our understanding of the Moon’s history and the formation of the Solar System.

Unveiling a New Lunar Territory

According to Marc Norman, a planetary geochemist at the Australian National University, Chandrayaan-3’s landing at the south pole will provide unprecedented insights into a region distinct from the areas explored by previous missions. The geological characteristics of the south pole region differ significantly from those near the Apollo landing sites, presenting an opportunity to study a new and uncharted lunar territory.

Building on Past Success and Overcoming Challenges

Legacy of Chandrayaan Missions

Chandrayaan-3 follows the success of India’s previous lunar missions. Chandrayaan-1, launched in 2008, achieved a successful lunar orbit, while Chandrayaan-2, launched in 2019, deployed a lunar orbiter and aimed for a soft landing. Although Chandrayaan-2 encountered challenges during its descent, the lessons learned from that mission have been invaluable in shaping the improvements made for Chandrayaan-3.

Enhancements for a Successful Landing

ISRO engineers and scientists have meticulously refined the software and hardware components of Chandrayaan-3 to ensure a smoother landing operation. Notable enhancements include improved soft-landing sequences, optimized lander thrusters, reinforced landing legs, larger solar panels for enhanced power generation, and increased fuel capacity. These upgrades address the specific issues encountered during the Chandrayaan-2 mission, demonstrating ISRO’s commitment to continuous improvement and learning.

Learning from Failure: Cause of Chandrayaan-2 Crash

While ISRO has not publicly released an official report analyzing the Chandrayaan-2 crash, a retired ISRO engineer has attributed the mishap to insufficient throttling—gradual reduction in speed—by the engines during the final descent phase. The lessons learned from this incident have been instrumental in refining the landing procedures for Chandrayaan-3, ensuring a higher chance of success.

Scientific Objectives and Technological Milestones

Comprehensive Lunar Exploration

Chandrayaan-3 encompasses a range of scientific objectives aimed at expanding our knowledge of the Moon and its environment. The mission includes instruments on both the lander and the rover to measure ion and electron density, monitor surface temperature, scan for moonquakes, and investigate the dynamics of the Moon’s system. Additionally, Chandrayaan-3 will provide valuable data on the thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith, contributing to our understanding of the surface composition and potentially revealing unexpected discoveries.

Communication and Data Collection

The propulsion module accompanying the lander and rover will serve as a communications relay satellite, ensuring seamless transmission of data between the lunar surface and Earth. Furthermore, the orbiter from the Chandrayaan-2 mission will act as a backup relay, enhancing the mission’s reliability and data collection capabilities. The Chandrayaan-3 mission also incorporates the Spectro-polarimetry of HAbitable Planet Earth (SHAPE) instrument on the propulsion module, which will gather data on the polarization of Earth’s reflected light, aiding in the search for habitable exoplanets.

Future Implications and Geopolitical Significance

A Stepping Stone for Long-Term Lunar Presence

Chandrayaan-3 is not only a scientific endeavor but also a critical step towards establishing a sustained human presence on the Moon and other celestial bodies. Its success will contribute to the technological advancements required for future manned and robotic missions, demonstrating India’s capabilities and paving the way for further exploration and potential utilization of lunar resources.

Technological Advancements and Geopolitical Influence

The successful execution of Chandrayaan-3 will showcase India’s technological prowess and expand its geopolitical influence in the space domain. As countries vie for leadership in space exploration, India’s lunar ambitions position it as a prominent player on the global stage. The mission reinforces India’s commitment to pushing boundaries, fostering innovation, and inspiring future generations of scientists and engineers.


India’s Chandrayaan-3 mission represents a significant leap forward in lunar exploration. With its focus on the lunar south pole and its improved hardware and software, the mission holds the promise of scientific discoveries, technological advancements, and a greater presence in the global space exploration arena. As India shoots for the Moon, it aims to unlock the secrets of our celestial neighbor and take humanity one step closer to a future of sustained lunar exploration.

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